In biblical times, a pagan living in the Land of Israel, who did not want to convert to Judaism, but accepted the seven laws of Noah as binding on himself, received the legal status of Ger Toshav (Hebrew: גר תושב, eng.: “stranger” or “stranger” + Toshav: “resident”, lit.      A Gertoshav is therefore commonly called a “righteous pagan” (Hebrew: חסיד אומות העולם, Chassid Umot ha-Olam: “pious people of the world”), and is sure of a place in the world to come (Olam Ha-Ba).       The legal saga between Snyder`s-Lance, the maker of Pretzel Crisps, and PepsiCo`s Frito-Lay, maker of Rold Gold`s Pretzel Thins, appears to be just beginning — and the ongoing lawsuits are already serving as a cautionary tale for emerging food and beverage brands. Noah Galton is a litigator and problem solver. Whether assisting law enforcement agencies and landowners with large-scale land acquisition projects and major domain issues, or defending companies involved in complex commercial disputes, Noah has experience providing creative legal solutions in high-stakes litigation. “Clean labels” on the front of the package have become one of the most important ways for brands to demonstrate all their food properties. But it is also becoming a source of legal tension. The rabbinical rules on Jewish-pagan relations are modified in the case of a ger toshav.  The accepted halakhic opinion is that the ger toshav must accept the seven Noahid laws in the presence of three haberim (men of authority) or, according to rabbinic tradition, before a Beth Din (Jewish rabbinical court).  He will receive certain legal protections and privileges from the Jewish community, and there is an obligation to help him in need. The restrictions on a non-Jew working for a Jew on Shabbat are also greater if the non-Jew is a Ger-Toshav.  Landowner Advocacy: Representing landowners and other property stakeholders in seeking fair compensation under the Texas Constitution and protecting their property rights. Representative issues include: The lawsuit alleges that the brand misleads consumers with its front-of-package design, and now the lawsuit is leading many industry leaders to question what are the most effective ways to use clean-label marketing strategies.
In practice, Jewish law makes it very difficult to apply the death penalty.  There is no record of a non-Jew being executed for violating the seven Noahid laws.  Some of the categories of the death penalty recorded in the Talmud are recorded as never having been carried out. It is believed that the rabbis discussed this in anticipation of the coming Messianic age.  According to Adam J. Silverstein, professor of Middle Eastern studies and Islamic studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jewish theologians began to reconsider the relevance and applicability of Noah`s seven laws in the Middle Ages, largely because of the precarious living conditions of the Jewish people under medieval Christian kingdoms and the Islamic world (see Jewish-Christian Relations and Jewish-Islamic Relations). because Christians and Muslims recognize the Patriarch Abraham as a unifying figure of the Abrahamic tradition, alongside the monotheistic conception of God.  Silverstein notes that Jewish theology included concepts and frameworks that would allow certain types of non-Jews to be recognized as righteous and worthy to live in the afterlife on the basis of the “Noahide Law.” He sees two “Torahs”: one for the Jews, the other for the pagan “children of Noah.” While Noahide law should theoretically be universal, its prohibitions against blasphemy and idolatry mean that in practice it applies only to non-idolatrous theists.